Is the typhoid vaccine required? No, she will not be forced to do everything in the clinic, as it happens with the main vaccinations.
It does not refer to the type recommended when on a paid basis the doctor may advise her to hold. In post-Soviet countries, people do not need vaccination against typhoid fever.
- Typhoid vaccine will be needed in case of departure to rest in countries with frequent outbreaks of typhoid fever.
- She will be forced to make all laboratory workers involved in the creation of this vaccine or working with the strains of cells that cause the disease.
- All health workers were traveling to regions with epidemics of the disease.
- All people living in countries where outbreaks of typhoid fever are recorded at regular intervals are vaccinated.
- During the development of an epidemic or even in rare cases of the occurrence of single foci of the disease, workers participating in the disinfection of infection zones — all those who carry out sewage works in the area, doctors working in medical institutions, receiving patients, etc. — are vaccinated.
- People who live in an area with a reported case of infection can be infected with typhoid fever, even if there are no epidemics in the country over the past few years
In which regions is typhoid vaccination required? Outbreaks of the disease are recorded annually in South America, Africa, and Asia.
When traveling to countries from these regions, it is advisable to vaccinate for your safety.
How long does typhoid vaccine last?
About 60 percent of the vaccinated are protected against typhoid infections. Depending on the vaccine used, the vaccine will be used 10 to 14 days after vaccination.
Duration of protection after vaccination about three years and after oral treatment for about one year. Booster vaccinations if the need persists according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Types of typhoid vaccines
Vaccination against the disease can be planned only in regions with frequent epidemics. Prevention of typhoid fever in our countries is most often carried out in emergency cases.
But when will the vaccine take effect, if it is needed soon before going to an exotic country?
The period of immune response to the introduction of typhoid vaccine is at least two weeks. That is, in the case of a trip abroad to a country dangerous for the disease, it is recommended to do the vaccination at least 10 days before departure, and preferably 14 days before.
And here there are some peculiarities – some drugs are intended only for routine prophylaxis, and 100% effect after their administration, appears just after 1-2 months.
Therefore, before vaccination against typhoid fever be sure to check with your doctor what vaccine will carry out prevention.
What are the types of vaccines? Several years ago, only three types of typhoid vaccines were vaccinated and only from the age of 7 years. Today the situation has changed somewhat.
There are three main types of vaccines against infection.
- Live attenuated oral vaccine. An example is the Ty21a capsule vaccine.
- Inactivated liquid injection vaccine: “Vianvak,” “Tim V.”
- it Dry vaccine “Tifivak” based on the lyophilisate of bacteria.
Each drug has its characteristics. Today, a person has a choice – you can make the vaccination subcutaneously or swallow several capsules at regular intervals.
How to get vaccinated against typhoid fever
In the case of vaccination against this infection, it is pleasant to note that there are several types of prophylactic drugs. They are suitable for emergency and routine prevention, which must be taken care of in advance.
How do you prevent typhoid fever?
- In places where outbreaks of the disease are detected to all who have a high probability of meeting with the pathogen, doctors prescribe a typhoid bacteriophage. This drug can be called antibacterial, as its main task is the extermination of Salmonella, which is the cause of typhoid fever. The medicine is drunk 1.5–2 hours before meals 1 time in three days. Suitable for emergency prevention of the disease.
- Oral vaccination with Ty21a vaccine – capsules is drunk every other day. It is suitable for protection against typhoid fever from the age of six and is protected by a vaccine for 5 years.
- Injectable forms are injected subcutaneously into the upper part of the shoulder or intramuscularly (“Tim V”), after 2-3 years it is necessary to carry out revaccination for more extended protection. Maximum protection is three years.
- The dry vaccine is dissolved with a special liquid for injection, is prescribed at the age of 15, is injected under the scapula, and revaccination is performed again after one month.
What vaccine to choose? First of all, it all depends on this age. For the prevention of typhoid fever, children use injection vaccines, but not before the age of three. In case of emergency, it is better to use bacteriophage.
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Reactions and side effects on vaccination
Vaccination is well tolerated. Side effects on all of the above drugs rarely occur. But there are also unexpected situations when the human body specifically responded to the introduction of a protective drug.
What kind of body reaction can you expect from a vaccination?
- After vaccination, a slight rise in temperature to 37.5 ºC is possible.
- Sometimes there is a local reaction in the form of slight redness and swelling at the injection site.
- This general reaction of the body to vaccination in the form of weakness, dizziness, slight apathy.
- After vaccination, an allergic reaction can occur to one of the components of the drug in the form of a rash in the area of its introduction or on the whole body.
- In severe cases, a shock is possible.
Side effects of typhoid vaccination occur in the form of nausea, headaches, abdominal pain and fever.
All of the above reactions bother a person for a short time and pass on their own within 1-2 days. In rare cases, anti-inflammatory or antipyretic drugs have to be taken.
How to avoid unwanted reactions
To this prevent or minimize possible responses to typhoid vaccination, vaccination should be prepared in advance.
- To avoid a false reaction in the form of a rash, do not eat unusual dishes and do not enter into the diet of exotic foods before and after vaccination.
- Before and after vaccination do not need to visit places of large concentrations of people.
- After vaccination, remain under medical supervision for 30–40 minutes. Do not leave the clinic this time, so that in case of an acute reaction, you will receive emergency assistance.
- On the day of the vaccine, it is better to avoid alcohol.
- Swimming is allowed but except public water bodies. And rubbing the injection site is also undesirable.
- If many substances cause allergic reactions, then it is necessary to tell the doctor and, if possible, stock up with antiallergic and anti-inflammatory drugs.
- In the case when a person is vaccinated with oral vaccines against typhoid fever, and there is a reaction to the next capsule – prevention should be stopped.
Who is not vaccinated? Of course, this applies to countries with foci of infection and populations that have to do immunization in connection with the current epidemic situation for typhoid fever. Vaccination against typhoid fever is not indicated to the following persons:
- babies under two years old are not prescribed anti-infection drugs;
- pregnant women and lactating mothers;
- during exacerbation of chronic diseases or in acute infections, vaccination is not indicated;
- who reacted to the previous vaccine;
- if a person has severe conditions of the circulatory system, liver, and biliary tract;
- with renal failure;
- live vaccines are not indicated if a person has any diseases that are accompanied by deterioration of the immune system (oncology, thyroid diseases, blood systems, HIV infection);
- Lyophilisate bacteria are not prescribed to children under 15 years.
In any case, before vaccination, it is essential to familiarize yourself with the instructions, because vaccines are manufactured by different companies so that contraindications may differ.
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Where to get vaccinated
In the case of planned vaccination against typhoid fever, treatment is done in the clinic or clinic in the place of residence.
It is more the case in countries where the disease is permanently recorded. There I plan immunization. The first doctor to visit is the local therapist.
He will conduct a full examination and determine the presence of contraindications. Then, if there is an infectious disease specialist in the clinic, he will be involved in vaccine prevention.
How to get a vaccine against typhoid fever in adults and children in this case? If time allows – the desired drug will be ordered and brought to the clinic. Or you can buy the vaccine yourself in a paid clinic.
Who is shown to be vaccinated against typhoid fever and is it necessary at all? Vaccination is needed, but not to everyone, but only to specific categories of citizens, and only during the period of infection.
In our country, such immunization is mainly done for tourists going on holiday to exotic lands
Before vaccination, it is essential not only to familiarize yourself with the contraindications – you should consult with your doctor about all possible preparations to find your own convenient and optimal one.
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Can you prevent typhoid fever?
In addition, it should be remembered that the importance of preventing the development of typhoid and epidemic outbreak is proper compliance with personal hygiene, adequate water supply, sufficient protection of garbage and impurities, control of working conditions in the food industry and gastronomy, treatment and control of typhoid carriers , current and final decontamination of rooms and objects with which the patient came into contact, examination of healing injuries.
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